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Although many Shona practice Christianity, they often turn to traditional religions to solve personal problems, such as illness, and to improve the fertility of the land.
When it gained independence in , this resource-rich nation had a prosperous merchant class and a long history of representative government.
Its recent history, however, has been filled with political instability and violence. Since a devastating civil war has reduced the nation to a state of chaos.
The mountainous southeastern portion of the country features peaks up to 6, feet high. The climate of Sierra Leone is extremely hot and humid, with average rainfall of about inches along the coast.
Contact between local peoples and coastal traders was frequent throughout the period before European rule. Four years later a private London firm called the Sierra Leone Company reestablished the settlement.
The group included American blacks, loyal to Britain, who had been freed during the American Revolutionary War. The Sierra Leone Company and its colonists disagreed about the purpose of the colony.
The settlers viewed Sierra Leone as a haven of freedom in which to start a new life; the company regarded it as a moneymaking venture.
These disputes led to an armed uprising of settlers in that was put down by the company. The Sierra Leone Company had problems not only with settlers but also with local Temne rulers.
In the past the Temne had leased land to European slave traders but had kept control over it. However, in the treaties they signed with the Sierra Leone Company the Temne unknowingly surrendered control of the land to the company.
This led to arguments that resulted in war. In and Temne forces attacked Freetown, but the British eventually drove the Temne away from the area.
The Temne were not the only threat to the colony. Britain and France went to war in , and the following year French forces burned Freetown to the ground.
Because of continuing losses, the Sierra Leone company could not make a profit, and in it yielded control of the colony to the British Crown.
Enslaved Africans who were picked up on the ships were resettled in Freetown. During the early s, some 80, freed slaves were settled in Sierra Leone.
Under the guidance of missionaries and British officials, most converted to Christianity, learned English, and adopted Western names and lifestyles.
The mixing of people from different backgrounds and races produced a Creole society that combined elements of both African and European culture.
In time the members of this mixed population became known as Krio. With little European competition, Krio traders in Sierra Leone established profitable import-export businesses dealing in timber, palm oil, and palm kernels.
A Krio middle class emerged that invested in land and built large houses for themselves. Prosperous Krio business leaders contributed generously to the building of churches and schools.
Christian missions provided schooling for children, and in the Church Missionary Society founded Fourah Bay College for higher education.
With these educational opportunities, new generations of Krio became doctors, lawyers, and government officials.
Over time, many people from surrounding areas moved to Freetown. Although the Krio worked alongside these newcomers, they tended to separate themselves from non-Krio groups.
Some Krio even considered them a threat. By the s lack of employment opportunities forced many Krio to leave Sierra Leone. Some returned to their Yoruba homeland, while others decided to start new businesses elsewhere.
The stream of emigrants from Sierra Leone formed the nucleus of an African middle class in British West Africa during the late s.
The Road to Independence. During the s tensions arose and intensified between the Krio and local British businessmen.
Two years later the British imposed a Hut Tax on Africans to help pay the cost of colonial government. This led to an armed uprising in , and resistance to British rule increased over the following years.
At about this same time, the British began expanding the political rights of Sierra Leoneans. In the colonial council appointed its first black member, and regular elections were held in Freetown beginning in Outside Freetown, however, few people had the right to vote.
By the s events were rapidly moving toward independence for Sierra Leone. Armed gangs patrol roads in the countryside and demand payment for passage.
On one mile stretch of road between Freetown and Kenema, a reporter was stopped more than 60 times.
Even the average citizen has to resort to illegal means to survive. The war has destroyed so many roads to urban markets that many farmers find it easier to smuggle their crops over the border to neighboring countries than to try to sell them in Sierra Leone.
By the time independence came in , Sierra Leone had a long history of participatory government marked by free and fair elections.
When he died in , his half-brother Albert was elected prime minister. However, the second Margai lost support when he tried to set up a one-party state.
But military rule met with considerable opposition, and Stevens was returned to power a year later. Stevens and the APC took the coup as a warning against weakness and quickly moved to establish stronger control over the government.
Political corruption and violence increased, and by Sierra Leone had become a single-party state under APC leadership. Although Stevens was popular at first, growing corruption combined with a declining economy undermined his support.
Faced with political defeat, Stevens resigned in and turned the government over to a handpicked successor, Major General Joseph Momoh.
In his first years Momoh took steps to reform politics and create a more open system of government. He set up a commission to explore a return to multiparty politics and draft a new constitution.
Amid growing turmoil, a military coup led by Captain Valentine Strasser overthrew Momoh in Despite initial victories against Taylor and the RUF, Strasser was no more effective than Momoh at ending the civil war.
By the country was overrun by independent warlords and bandit groups in addition to the RUF. The government controlled only Freetown, and the economy was devastated.
A coup toppled Strasser, and despite the continued fighting, elections were held in March of that year. Only six months later, however, another coup ended the rule of the new civilian president, Ahmed Tejan Kabbah.
The leaders of the coup freed from prison Major Johnny Paul Koroma, who was awaiting trial for an earlier coup attempt against Kabbah. These Kamajor hunters banded together in defense units to protect villages against attacks by rebels and groups of roving soldiers.
Freetown was engulfed in violence, including looting by soldiers and rebels. The international community finally intervened, pressuring both sides to find a solution, and peace talks were scheduled for the spring of Since the signing of the agreement, United Nations forces have replaced ECOWAS troops as peacekeepers, and there have been plans for a war crimes trial to prosecute rebels for atrocities against civilians.
Freetown capital , , est. Varies from in. Before the outbreak of war in , the economy of Sierra Leone was based on agriculture and mining. Agriculture employed most of the population, with coffee and cocoa being the main export crops.
Fighting in rural areas drove many people off the land and into the cities. As a result most of the best farming land remains unplanted, leaving major agricultural areas out of production.
Rebel forces control the mining industry and earn money from smuggling diamonds and mineral ores to Liberia and other neighboring countries. The prospects for economic improvement in the short term are dim.
Some 60 percent belong to the Mende and Temne ethnic groups, and about 10 percent are Krio. The rest of the population consists mostly of other West African groups.
The tribute takers have usually been those in power, who are also responsible for distributing wealth and ensuring the fertility of the land and people.
This social relationship has broken down in recent years, largely as a result of widespread government corruption and the violence unleashed by the civil war.
The result is a massive social and economic divide within the country. Some Africans were enslaved within their own homelands.
Far more, however, were carried off as slaves to other parts of Africa or around the world through the slave trade. The slave trade was a type of commerce in which enslaved humans were bought, sold, or traded as goods or property.
It is impossible to know for certain how many millions of Africans suffered the brutality and cruelty of the slave trade before it came to an end in the s.
In terms of forcible relocation, the greatest number of people were taken from western and central Africa and shipped across the Atlantic Ocean to European colonies in the Americas.
However, slave traders had carried off people from other parts of Africa for centuries before the transatlantic slave trade began.
To those enslaved, the slave trade brought profound suffering. To some of the slave trade operators, it brought great wealth.
The slave trade also had various long-term effects, including the establishment of African populations on other continents, the weakening of African societies that were robbed of many productive young people, and warfare among African states, some of which supplied captives to foreign slave traders.
However, distinctive forms of the trade developed in the northern, western, central, and eastern parts of the continent.
Each of these regions was also the source of slaves for specific foreign markets. The northern branch of the African slave trade arose after Arabs invaded and conquered North Africa in the A.
At first, most of the enslaved people brought to Islamic areas came from central and eastern Europe. As a result the supply of European slaves to Muslim traders dwindled.
Most of the slaves who traveled these desert routes had to walk, and many died along the way. From there they were shipped to the Arabian peninsula and places farther east.
Historians estimate that 3. Others, however, remained within the Sahara region, northern Sudan, or Ethiopia. Enslaved men were acquired to work in agriculture, mining, shipping, fishing, and for other manual labor.
In addition, some rulers in Egypt and elsewhere in North Africa used black male slaves as soldiers. Beginning in the s European powers established colonies in a number of areas, first on islands in the Atlantic Ocean, later in the Americas, and finally in Africa.
They turned to slave labor to meet this need. Colonizers in the Americas first tried to enslave the native peoples, but their attempts ended in failure.
Overworked and infected with European diseases, the Native Americans were nearly wiped out in many places. As a result, the colonizers had to bring in labor from other regions.
European traders were already familiar with western Africa as a source of goods such as gold, pepper, and copper and had even acquired some black slaves there.
With the colonization of the Americas, the trickle of black slaves grew into a flood, and a slave trade developed that involved both Africans and Europeans.
Europeans rarely ventured inland on slave raids, leaving that part of the business to Africans based on the coast of western Africa.
Many of the captives came from interior regions, and nearly all were acquired by violence—through war, raids by organized groups of slave-takers, and kidnappings by individuals or small groups.
Those taken were marched to the coast and held in captivity until a European slave ship arrived. African slaves became part of a highly profitable commercial network that is often called the triangle trade.
On the first leg of the triangle, ships carried European manufactured goods such as cloth and cheap guns to Africa to be exchanged for slaves.
The second leg of the triangle, known as the Middle Passage, took the enslaved Africans to the Americas. The majority of them ended up on sugar plantations on the island colonies of the Caribbean.
The third leg of the trade carried sugar, rum, tobacco, and other plantation crops to Europe. The Middle Passage was a fearful ordeal for captive Africans.
Chained slaves were jammed into crowded, poorly ventilated cargo holds for the voyage, which lasted from three to six weeks. On average, 15 to 30 percent of the human cargo died of disease, abuse, or exhaustion during the trip.
Of the enslaved people who survived the journey, many died of overwork or malnutrition within a few years of their arrival in the Americas.
Known as the Zanj, they staged many revolts against their Arab masters. One revolt began in , lasted for 14 years, and involved tens of thousands of African slaves.
The rebels managed to capture Basra, a center of Arab political and military might. For a time the rebellion threatened the survival of the Arab state.
Eventually the Arabs crushed the revolt—but for centuries afterward they avoided importing slaves from eastern Africa.
The transatlantic slave trade lasted from the s to the s and was at its peak from to Historians estimate that at least 13 million people were shipped from Africa to the Americas as slaves.
Most of them were between 15 and 30 years old. About two thirds of the captives were male—slaveholders in the Americas preferred men for field labor.
Central Africa also contributed a steadily increasing share of the captives sent to European colonies in the Americas. After nearly half of the slaves shipped from Africa originated in that region.
By the s the Portuguese had brought 30, slaves to the island, mostly from Angola. The vast sugar plantations of Brazil required ever larger numbers of African slaves, and the discovery of gold and diamonds in Brazil in the s increased the demand for labor even more.
In the late s English, French, and Dutch slavers also began operating along the Atlantic coast of central Africa, shipping enslaved people primarily to sugar plantations in the West Indies.
As the demand for slaves grew, some groups of central Africans became more deeply involved in the trade, opening new territories in the interior as sources of slaves.
Warlords led raids into the population centers of these territories and sent caravans of captives back to the coast. The slave trade eventually included enslaved Africans from regions as distant as the center of the continent, miles from the coast.
By the s nearly all societies in central Africa owed their power either to their control of slaving routes or to the defensive strengths they had developed to protect themselves from slave raids.
African kingdoms near the coast gave up raiding and became go-betweens, buying slaves from the zones of violence in the interior and selling them to buyers on the coast.
To profit from the commerce in slaves, some local rulers in central Africa forced their subjects into debt and then condemned them to slavery when they could not repay what they owed.
Enslaved people from eastern Africa were shipped out of ports on the Indian Ocean coast for centuries. Muslim traders also sent Africans farther east, to Indonesia and China.
In the centuries that followed, slaves may have been exported from eastern Africa, but the Arabs who established trading communities along the coast were mainly interested in gold and ivory.
After the Portuguese arrived in the area and gained control of the coast in the s, they carried some enslaved Africans to Portuguese colonies in Asia.
However, slave raiding and slave trading did not become major economic activities in eastern Africa until the mids, when new demands for labor appeared.
Beginning in the late s, the state of Oman on the Arabian coast expanded its cultivation of date palms and also started plantations along the coast of KENYA.
These developments created a growing demand for slave labor. To meet the demand, new slave markets arose in eastern Africa.
The largest were in the southern part of the coast, but by the s virtually every port on the eastern coast was involved in the slave trade to some degree.
This slave trade in this region reached its height between and , with exports perhaps reaching 30, people a year.
Abolition— the movement to end slavery—began to attract support among Europeans in the late s, largely because of moral outrage against slavery.
In the late s the Ottoman Empire, which controlled Islamic North Africa and the Near East, also moved toward abolishing the slave trade as a result of internal reform movements and pressure from European powers.
In the end the slave trade was eventually stamped out partly for religious or moral reasons and partly for economic ones. Four hundred years of violent slave trading, however, had left deep marks on the African population.
The late s saw the growth of European political philosophies that stressed the rights of all people to freedom and equality.
At the same time Africans themselves fought against slavery and the slave trade, both through resistance in Africa and efforts to sway public opinion in Europe.
Other Africans performed the same role in France and the Americas. The personal stories of such individuals, told with eloquence and conviction, helped swell the ranks of the growing abolition movement.
While the abolition movement was gaining strength, far-reaching changes in industry and trade were reducing the economic rewards of slavery.
The prices of raw materials such as sugar began to fall on world markets, but African traders and rulers were raising the price of slaves.
These factors meant that slaveholders had to pay more for slaves whose output in labor was worth less in the marketplace.
At the same time the rise of the Industrial Revolution encouraged bankers and other investors to put their money into factories, not plantations.
British and European business leaders began to believe that the economic value of Africa in the future would be as a source of raw material for industry and a market for mass-produced factory goods rather than as a source of labor.
From an economic point of view, abolition involved transforming Africans from slaves into customers for European goods. Great Britain did the same two years later.
The United States banned the slave trade in , followed by the Netherlands in and France in In addition to abolishing the slave trade, Britain took on a policing role, sending naval vessels to the Atlantic coast of western Africa to seize slave ships.
Britain did not succeed in stopping the trade immediately—in fact, the number of slaves shipped from western Africa rose during the s and s.
In time, however, the combination of enforcement and reduced demand caused the slave trade to decrease significantly. Outlawing the slave trade was only the first step in ending slavery.
Great Britain abolished the institution of slavery and freed all slaves in By the time Brazil ended slavery in , the institution had been outlawed throughout the Western world.
Meanwhile, within the Ottoman Empire the period from the s to the s was a time of reform when upper-class, educated people began questioning slavery on moral grounds.
During that time Ottoman rulers also came under increasing pressure from Great Britain and other European nations to abolish slavery.
Britain took steps to choke off the trade routes that supplied the Ottoman empire with slaves. As a result, the Ottomans passed a series of laws between and ending the trade in both African and white slaves and officially abolishing slavery.
Even after the slave trade was outlawed, the traffic in slaves continued in some places, though on a greatly reduced scale. In addition, people remained in various forms of bondage in Africa and elsewhere.
The trade in African slaves brought about the largest forced movement of people in history. It established the basis for black populations in the Caribbean and in North and South America.
At the same time, it disrupted social and political life in Africa and opened the door for European colonization of the continent.
The effects of the slave trade are well illustrated in western Africa, the source of most enslaved people in the transatlantic trade.
Everyone benefited as these trade goods flowed smoothly among African groups and between Africans and Europeans.
The shift in European demand from gold, foodstuffs, and such products to slaves changed the relations among African groups and states.
The prices Africans received for slaves made it more profitable for them to take captives from their neighbors than to establish networks for producing and selling other goods.
In this way the slave trade encouraged strong states to raid weaker states for slaves. As a result, many African societies were torn by organized slave wars and general banditry.
Successful slave-raiding and trading societies formed new states that were dominated by military groups and constantly at war with their neighbors.
Abolition and the Christian reform movement with which it was closely linked gave Europeans a strong interest in the internal affairs of African states and an excuse to become involved in those affairs.
Eventually the mission to stamp out slavery became, in the eyes of many Europeans, a justification for bringing African territory under their control.
During the late s they divided the continent into colonies. Another legacy of the slave trade was the loss, in generation after generation, of young Africans who would play a productive role in the economic or political development of their homelands.
It is impossible to say what Africa could be like today had it escaped the widespread and long-lasting ravages of the slave trade. All figures are estimates.
Slavery Slavery 34 S lavery involves treating human beings as property that people can own. In the past, when slavery was legal or customary in many places, some slaves were granted certain rights and privileges.
However, no slave ever had true liberty or freedom, and the institution of slavery rested on force or the threat of force that could be used against the enslaved.
In Africa, as in other parts of the world, forms of slavery have existed since the beginning of recorded history. In numerous African societies, slavery and the institutions and conditions related to it had economic, political, and cultural significance.
Although slavery was abolished during the s, variations of it have continued to exist in some groups in Africa into modern times. Under systems of formal slavery, enslaved persons were considered property.
Islamic law permitted slavery but included rules governing the relationship to prevent extreme cruelty and abuse. The law also defined categories of people who could or could not be enslaved.
Muslims did not always agree, for example, on whether or not other Muslims could be enslaved. Concubinage was a special category of slavery in which masters maintained female slaves called concubines as sexual partners.
Concubines and their children sometimes had certain rights, especially under Islamic law. If a concubine bore a child fathered by her master, he could not sell her or the child.
In non-Muslim areas, children born to concubines were usually treated as equal to the children of free women. In some African societies, certain slaves belonged not to individuals but to a particular political position.
They lived on land that was controlled by the individual who held that position at a given time. Sometimes the bondage was religious rather than political.
Slaves were presented to a shrine, and the priests of the shrine had access to their labor and their bodies.
These slaves could not be sold because they belonged to the shrine, but they and their children were outcasts. If the debt was not repaid, or if the creditor himself fell into debt before the pawn was released, the creditor could sell the pawn into slavery.
In business arrangements, one side sometimes held individuals as commercial hostages. If the other side failed to complete the transaction, the hostages became slaves.
In certain societies pawnship sometimes served as a way for men to acquire additional wives. Slave wives or concubines were captured or purchased, but pawn wives were gained in return for canceling debts.
Practices associated with pawnship and other forms of enslavement suggest that there were various stages between freedom and slavery in Africa.
For example, not all war captives, political prisoners, and kidnapping victims became slaves immediately. Often they entered a form of servitude from which they could be released by payment of a ransom.
If the ransom was not paid, they became slaves. For the next thousand years Kanem and Bornu, the kingdom that followed it, seized slaves in raids on the lands to the south.
These slaves performed agricultural labor and sometimes colonized new territory. Slavetaking required ruthlessness, a quality praised in a song about one king during the s: The best you took and sent home as the first fruits of battle: The children crying on their mothers you snatched away from their mothers: You took the slave wife from a slave, and set them in lands far removed from one another.
Economic conditions played a major role in the kinds of servile arrangements that developed and the number of people who were enslaved.
Slavery became especially important in areas where large-scale agriculture, with its high demand for labor, developed into a major economic activity.
The importing of slaves into the Sahel continued into the late s. Along the Atlantic coast, slaves played a large role in the economy, working in agriculture and carrying goods to market.
Although the Jola people of the southern Senegal coast had resisted the slave trade for years, as the trade in groundnuts increased they began selling each other into slavery.
The Jola slaves cultivated rice plantations that fed the groundnut producers. During the s European and Arab colonies in southern and eastern Africa made extensive use of slaves, especially in producing goods for export.
These developments were part of a trend also seen in tropical areas of the Americas and Asia—the effort to capture export markets through the use of slave labor on plantations and in mines.
Enslaved persons from Africa had another economic role as well—as exports in the international slave trade. Slavery and servile conditions existed in a variety of cultures in Africa.
Slavery was present in some small communities in which the difference between groups or social classes was not great.
In larger, more complex societies, it occurred on a larger scale. Such societies had many roles that slaves could fill. Political and commercial groups—rulers, nobles, and merchants—had acquired the majority of slaves.
In many places rulers maintained their hold on political power by collecting a large personal following, which often included slaves and people in other servile conditions as well as relatives.
In a number of African states, including Ghana, ancient EGYPT, and some Nigerian societies, slaves were killed when royal or noble masters died so that they could accompany the masters into the afterlife.
Some groups sacrificed slaves into the s. A funeral for a wealthy master was not the only occasion for such sacrifices—slaves might also be killed in religious ceremonies.
Such events took place most often in societies where slaves had become very numerous. They had various purposes— to decrease slave populations, to terrorize slaves and make them easier to control, to punish criminals, and to frighten rival societies by killing captives.
Abolition—the movement to end the slave trade and slavery itself— became a powerful political force in Europe during the s.
Although the abolition movement grew out of the sincere belief that slavery was wrong, it also provided Europeans with a reason to invade and conquer the African continent.
In the late s and early s, the European powers established firm control over most of Africa. Together with the spread of Christianity, their rule undermined slavery and other servile institutions.
These institutions did not disappear overnight. In some regions reform was gradual, and slavery and pawnship died out slowly. Colonial administrations themselves established new servile institutions, such as forced labor for road-building projects or plantations.
They also introduced taxation, which often required Africans to take whatever wage labor they could find in order to pay their taxes.
As a result, many Africans labored in conditions not very different from servitude. In addition, local African rulers who cooperated with the new colonial administrations usually were allowed to keep some degree of power over those who had been slaves or pawns.
Finally, although Europeans made the buying and selling of slaves illegal, the laws were not always easy to enforce. Traffic in slaves continued for years in parts of Africa.
In some areas it survived even after the colonies gained independence in the mids. African slavery, they argue, differed in key ways from the slavery practiced by Europeans and Americans who obtained slaves as laborers through the international slave trade.
Western slavery was an economic institution—slaves were property whose value lay in the work they could perform.
People acquired slaves for reasons other than economic usefulness. Ownership of a large number of slaves, for example, was a sign of power and importance.
African slavery was also closely related to issues of KINSHIP, the network of extended family relationships that form the primary social unit in most African cultures.
Forcibly torn from their kinship groups or their lines of ancestry, slaves and pawns were stripped of their social identities.
They became nonpersons in cultures that traditionally defined existence as membership in a social group rather than in terms of individuality.
Slaves who were intended for sale or sacrifice remained nonpersons. Although slaves occupied the outer rim of this network, they were still recognized as part of it.
Generally they were given new names to mark the fact that their old identities had ceased to exist. The main characteristics of Western slavery were the loss of freedom and the possibility of regaining it.
In African societies, however, people placed a very high value on belonging to a kinship group. For them slavery also involved the loss of kinfolk.
In other cases, the process occurred slowly, as succeeding generations came to be regarded more and more as part of the group, until eventually the boundaries between those of free descent and those descended from slaves became blurred.
In this sense, the Western notion of slavery—the ownership of people as property—was very different from the realities of the institution of slavery in Africa.
Following peace negotiations, Smuts helped to unite South Africa—then a self-governing British territory—under largely Afrikaner leadership.
In he went to England where he held a cabinet post in the government of Prime Minister Balfour. During that time he helped to draft the declaration that proposed founding a Jewish state in Palestine.
In Smuts was elected prime minister of South Africa. Smuts was defeated in the elections five years later. Smuts dedicated his career to achieving a peaceful union of British and Afrikaner settlers in a South Africa governed by European principles.
S obhuza I ca. To accomplish this, he used techniques of persuasion that included arranging alliances through marriage and granting titles and choice lands to neighboring chiefs.
Sobhuza then moved his people into central Swaziland, defeating rival clans and expanding his holdings as far north as the Transvaal. He defended his territory against attacks by ZULU and Ndwandwe forces and was negotiating with missionaries to consolidate the kingdom at the time of his death.
By the time he was crowned in , the Swazi kingdom had grown considerably weaker. When Swaziland achieved independence in , he became its first ruler.
Extremely popular, Sobhuza II continued as king without opposition until his death. See Class Structure and Caste. S ince the beginning of its civil war in , Somalia has served as a grisly example of what can happen when an African state collapses.
The fighting disrupted all services, and famine took thousands of lives. In the year , a peace conference selected a president to head a new central government.
The country consists mostly of a large plateau broken by a chain of mountains in the far north. Its extremely hot and dry climate includes two rainy seasons alternating with two dry seasons.
Rainfall in the north averages only about 3 inches per year, but the far south of the country can receive up to 20 inches. Somalia has two rivers that carry water all year round, the Juba and Shabeelle, both in the far south.
The area between the rivers is virtually the only place in the country that can support commercial agriculture. Banana and sugar plantations are located here, along with acacia and aloe trees also grown in the north.
Most of the remaining plant life consists of scrub brush and grasses. However, since the late s this territory has been the subject of disputes between the two countries, and the movement of the herders has been disrupted.
Tension over the Haud and Ogaden continues, and even fighting has occurred. Some clans trace their occupation of the area back to the A. In the late s, Britain and Italy both established colonies in what is now Somalia.
One unit is based on the needs of goats and sheep, which require frequent watering. The other is based on the needs of camels, which need water much less often.
Grazing camels, which provide milk, are usually put in the care of young unmarried men. Sheep and goats, on the other hand, travel with families.
The families also use camels to carry their tents and other belongings. Thus, while a married herder with his sheep and goats may be in one place, his main herd of camels may be far away under the care of a younger kinsman.
British officials allowed the Somalis to keep their local clan councils and left them in charge of resolving conflicts among the local population.
However, they transferred the traditional Somali grazing lands of the Haud and Ogaden to Ethiopia. This move laid the groundwork for the later conflicts between the two countries.
The Italians controlled the central and southern regions that make up the bulk of modern Somalia. In Somalia Italiana, colonial officials followed a policy of eliminating local authority and forcing Somalis to adopt Italian law.
Southern Somalis reacted to Italian rule with armed resistance that continued until the s. By the late s, the drive for Somali independence had gained momentum.
The most important political parties in both the north and south called for all Somali territories to unite under a single flag. By June , both Somaliland and Somalia Italiana had won independence, and in the following month they joined to form the Somali Republic.
Its first elected president was Aden Abdullah Osman Daar. Although united as a nation, the two former colonies remained far apart in many ways.
In the north, British colonial policies had produced a highly educated group of Somalis, many of whom attended British universities.
In the south, the Italians had provided much less education. The only real tie between the peoples of the two regions was a vague sense of shared identity.
When the new state took shape, the south gained most of the benefits of government. The greatest number of political offices went to southerners, even though far more northerners were qualified to fill them.
Northerners and southerners typically had different ideas about what type of policies to pursue.
This program led to ongoing border clashes with Ethiopia and poor relations with Kenya. He set up a series of councils, with himself at the head of each, to run the various affairs of state.
He also brought most parts of the economy under state control and prohibited private trading activities.
With Soviet help Barre expanded the military. In he sent Somali troops into Ethiopia to back a rebel group sympathetic to Somali territorial claims.
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